Linux for Starters

Linux for Starters: Your Guide to Linux – Linux Commands – Appendix

There are thousands of Linux commands so it’s impractical to provide a comprehensive list. Instead we focus on many of the commands you will need at some time or another.

Don’t be concerned by the sheer number of commands as you’ll probably only use a small number of commands on a regular basis.

To get help on a command type: man command_name which displays the documentation. We also recommend you use tldr, as it offers simplified documentation.

Given the number of commands we’ve split the commands into 6 pages.

Commands: A-D
adduserCreate a new user
aptPackage management utility for Debian/Ubuntu based distributions
archDisplay the name of the system architecture
awkVersatile programming language for working on files
bcArbitrary precision calculator language
catPrint and concatenate files
chgrp Change group ownership of files and directories
chrootRun command or interactive shell with special root directory
cksumCalculates CRC checksums and byte counts of a file
cmpCompare two files byte by byte
commSelect or reject lines common to two files. Both files must be sorted.
cpCopy files and directories
crontabSchedule cron jobs to run on a time interval for the current user
csplitSplit a file into pieces
cutCut out fields from stdin (standard input stream) or file
dateSet or display the system date
dcAn arbitrary precision calculator. Uses reverse polish notation (RPN).
ddConvert and copy a file
diffCompare files and directories
dirnameCalculates the parent directory of a given file or directory path
duDisk usage: estimate and summarize file and directory space usage

Pages in this article:
Page 1 – Commands: A-D
Page 2 – Commands: E-H
Page 3 – Commands: I-M
Page 4 – Commands: N-R
Page 5 – Commands: S-U
Page 6 – Commands: V-Z

All articles in this series:

Linux For Starters: Your Guide to Linux
1What is Linux? Why use Linux? What do I need?
2Choose a Linux distribution meeting your specific needs and requirements.
3Make a bootable Ubuntu USB stick in Windows.
4We show you how to install Ubuntu 21.04 on your hard disk.
5Things to do after installing Ubuntu.
6Navigating your way around the Desktop.
7Updating the system, install new software.
8Open source replacements for proprietary Windows desktop software.
9Get started with the power and flexibility of the terminal.
10We cover the basics of files and permissions.
11Getting help from your system.
12Learn all about the file system.
13Manipulating files from the shell.
14Maintain your system with these simple tips.
15Managing users on your system.
16Explore different desktops to GNOME 3.
17Gaming on Linux.
18Protect your privacy with this guide.
19Access the Windows desktop from Linux using a remote desktop client.
20Set up a virtual machine running Ubuntu as the host and openSUSE as the guest.
21Wine lets you run Windows programs on Linux without emulation.
XUseful Linux commands.

Read our complete collection of recommended free and open source software. The collection covers all categories of software.

The software collection forms part of our series of informative articles for Linux enthusiasts. There's tons of in-depth reviews, open source alternatives to proprietary software from large corporations like Google, Microsoft, Apple, Adobe, IBM, Cisco, Oracle and Autodesk. There are also fun things to try, hardware, free programming books and tutorials, and much more.
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