Science really prospers and advances when individuals share the results of their experiments with others in the scientific community. There is a certain logic that scientific software should therefore be released in a freely distributable environment.
Astronomy - This is a branch of science that deals with the study of celestial objects (including stars, planets, moons, comets, asteroids, meteor showers, nebulae, star clusters and galaxies) and other phenomena
Biology - Concerned with the study of living things. A good range of open source biology software is available for Linux
Bioinformatics - The application of mathematics, computing and statistics to the analysis of biological information
CNC - CNC (also known as numerical control or computer numerical control) is the automated control of machining tools (such as milling machines, lathes, 3d printers, laser cutters, plasma cutters, robot arms, hexapods) by means of a computer.
Computer Algebra Systems - Manipulate mathematical formulae in a way similar to the traditional manual computations of mathematicians and scientists
Chemistry - The study of matter and the changes it undergoes. Chemistry is found in many different areas including all spheres of industry, research, teaching, forensic science, public health and much more
Data Analysis (Python) - a process of inspecting, cleansing, transforming and modelling data with the goal of discovering useful information, informing conclusions and supporting decision-making
Data Mining - Brings together the fields of computer science, statistics and artificial intelligence. This is the process of gathering large amounts of valid information, analyzing that information and condensing it into meaningful data
Data Science Notebooks - Virtual collaborative environments which contains computer code and rich text elements. Notebooks offer a more exploratory method to write code
Data Science (Python Tools) - Python is arguably the go-to programming language for data scientists. Data science is an emerging, multidisciplinary field of scientific methods, processes, algorithm development and technology to extract knowledge or insights in ingenious ways from structured or unstructured data
Data Validation (Python) - perform data validation. Data scientists favour Python because it’s easy to use and learn, offers a good set of built-in features, and is highly extensible
Deep Learning - Python software for Deep Learning, a subset of Machine Learning that uses multi-layers artificial neural networks to deliver state-of-the-art accuracy in tasks such as object detection, speech recognition, language translation and others
Earth Science - Wide range of fields such as geology, geography, geophysics, meteorology and oceanography. This roundup will be interest for scientists that work with large amounts of data with spatial attributes
Econometrics - Statistical software that is specialised for econometric analysis. Econometrics is the application of statistical or quantitative methods to understand economic issues and test theories, and models. It is the study of economic models, mathematical statistics, and economic data.
Mathematics Tools (Python) - Useful for mathematicians working with Python. The software expands immensely on the maths functionality provided by the Python Standard Library
Physics - The study of matter and energy applying laws that govern natural phenomena. It encompasses the study of the universe from the largest galaxies to subatomic particles, covering mechanics, radiation, heat, electricity, sound, magnetism and the structure of atoms
Plotting Tools - Helps to analyze and visualize data. Generate plots of functions, data and data fits. Software of this nature typically includes additional functionality, such as data analysis functions including curve fitting
Proof Assistants - A proof assistant or interactive theorem prover is a software tool to assist with the development of formal proofs by human-machine collaboration.
R Graphical User Interfaces - For statistical computing and graphics. Quickly get to grips with this programming language and environment
Robotics Software - Branch of artificial intelligence concerned with the study of robots. Robotics covers a wide spectrum of areas including the design, construction, operation and manufacture of robots
Statistical Analysis - Helps scientists understand a concept or representation and make possible predictions
Virtual Globes - Alternatives to Google Earth, software that renders a 3D representation of Earth based primarily on satellite imagery
Visualization Packages (Python) - explore data and share results with others. Python has a fantastic range of packages to produce mesmerizing visualizations
Weather - Includes both GUI and console tools. Many of the software tools retrieve their weather data from the OpenWeatherMap no charge weather API
Scientific - Maths, biology, chemistry, physcis, electronics & engineering and more. This is a large collection of great free open source software
Natural Language Processing
Natural Language Processing - Field of computer science, artificial intelligence, and computational linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages
R Natural Language Processing - R offers competent libraries for NLP. Many of the techniques such as word and sentence tokenization, n-gram creation, and named entity recognition are easily performed in R
Java Natural Language Processing - Java runs Python and R close when it comes to NLP. Java is one of the most widely used programming languages owing part of its popularity to its extensive ecosystem
Big Data is an all-inclusive term that refers to data sets so large and complex that they need to be processed by specially designed hardware and software tools.
Data Analysis Tools - Examine huge quantities of unstructured data to find patterns, correlations, and more with these distributed systems.
File Systems - We examine storage solutions which are designed to scale out on multiple servers. They support high performance data and offer consistent access to a common set of data from multiple servers.
Key Value Stores - Key value stores refers to a general concept of database where entities (values) are indexed using a unique key. They allow the application to store its data in a schema-less way. Data can be stored in a datatype of a programming language or an object.
Native XML Databases - Store data and documents without requiring a database schema. An XML database allows data to be stored in the Extensible Markup Language (XML) format.
Search Engines - Full-featured search engines through an application programming interface which are designed for performing information retrieval functions on Big Data.
Electronic Medical Records - This type of software is used in a hospital and doctor’s surgery to capture medical information, reducing the amount of physical records, and the costs associated in storing them
Eye Care - There are lots of simple steps you can take to reduce eye strain and fatigue. But there's also software to help
Food and Drink - Nutrition, diet and BEER! Cook delicious food, adopt a healthy diet, and use software to help you brew ale, lager, and stout
Medical Imaging - View DICOM images. DICOM is an acronym for Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine