Programming Tutorials

Excellent Free Tutorials to Learn Icon

Icon is a high-level, general-purpose language that contains a wide variety of features for processing and presenting symbolic data — strings of characters and structures — both as text and as graphic images.

Icon has a large repertoire of operations for manipulating structures — records, lists, sets, and tables — and extensive capabilities for processing strings of characters. At the heart of Icon is a goal — directed expression-evaluation mechanism that simplifies many programming tasks. Storage is allocated automatically — you never have to worry about allocating space — and garbage collection reclaims unused space as necessary.

Applications of Icon include analysing natural languages, reformatting data, generating computer programs, manipulating formulas, formatting documents, artificial intelligence, rapid prototyping, and graphic display of complex objects, and more.

Here’s our recommended free tutorials/articles that’ll help you master Icon.

1. The Icon Analyst

The Icon Analyst provided in-depth coverage of Icon with an emphasis on programming. It focused on technical aspects of the Icon programming language. It ceased publication in 2001 but remains a valuable resource.

Read the articles


2. The Icon Newsletter edited by Ralph E. Griswold, Madge T. Griswold, and Gregg M. Townsend

The Icon Newsletter focused on topical information about the Icon programming language. Sixty issues were published between 1979 and 2000.

Read the newsletters


3. Fundamentals of the Icon Programming Language by William H. Mitchell

This is the full set of slides for a fifteen-hour course on Icon.

Read the lecture notes


4. An Overview of the Icon Programming Language; Version 9 by Ralph E. Griswold

This article offers a good introduction to the language.

Read the article


All tutorials in this series:

Free Programming Tutorials
ABAPAdvanced Business Application Programming
AdaALGOL-like programming language, extended from Pascal and others
AgdaDependently typed functional language based on intuitionistic type theory
AliceEducational language with an integrated development environment
ArduinoInexpensive, flexible, open source microcontroller platform
AssemblyAs close to writing machine code without writing in pure hexadecimal
AwkVersatile language designed for pattern scanning and processing
Bash‘Bourne-Again-SHell’ is both a shell and programming language
BASICFamily of general-purpose, high-level programming languages
CGeneral-purpose, procedural, portable, high-level language
C++General-purpose, portable, free-form, multi-paradigm language
C#Combines the power and flexibility of C++ with the simplicity of Visual Basic
ChapelParallel-programming language in development at Cray Inc.
ClojureDialect of the Lisp programming language
ClojureScriptCompiler for Clojure that targets JavaScript
COBOLCommon Business-Oriented Language
CoffeeScriptA very succinct programming language that transcompiles into JavaScript
CoqDependently typed language similar to Agda, Idris, F*, Lean, and others
CrystalGeneral-purpose, concurrent, multi-paradigm, object-oriented language
CSSCSS (Cascading Style Sheets) specifies a web page’s appearance
DGeneral-purpose systems programming language with a C-like syntax
DartClient-optimized programming language for fast apps
DylanMulti-paradigm language, supports functional & object-oriented programming
ECMAScriptBest known as the language embedded in web browsers
EiffelObject-oriented language
ElixirRelatively new functional language that runs on the Erlang virtual machine
ElmFunctional language that compiles to JavaScript
Emacs LispA dialect of the Lisp programming language.
ErlangGeneral-purpose, concurrent, declarative, functional language
F#General purpose, strongly typed, multi-paradigm language. Part of ML
FactorDynamic stack-based language
ForthImperative stack-based programming language
FortranThe first high-level language, using the first compiler
GoCompiled, statically typed programming language
GroovyPowerful, optionally typed and dynamic language
HackFor the HipHop Virtual Machine (HHVM), created as a dialect of PHP
HamlHTML Abstraction Markup Language
HaskellStandardized, general-purpose, polymorphically, statically typed language
HTMLHyperText Markup Language
IconHigh-level, general-purpose language
ImbaFull-stack language that compiles to performant JavaScript
JArray programming language based primarily on APL
JavaGeneral-purpose, concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, high-level language
JavaScriptInterpreted, prototype-based, scripting language
JuliaHigh-level, high-performance language for technical computing
KotlinStatically typed, general-purpose programming language with type inference
LabVIEWDesigned to enable domain experts to build power systems quickly
LaTeXProfessional document preparation system and document markup language
LessBackwards-compatible language extension for Cascading Style Sheets
LimboDesigned for applications running distributed systems on small computers
LispUnique features - excellent to study programming constructs
LogoDialect of Lisp that features interactivity, modularity, extensibility
LuaDesigned as an embeddable scripting language
MarkdownPlain text formatting syntax designed to be easy-to-read and easy-to-write
NimStatically typed compiled systems language with syntax resembling Python
Objective-CGeneral purpose language which is a superset of C
OCamlGeneral-purpose, powerful, high-level language
OctaveHigh-level language, primarily intended for numerical computations
OpenCLOpen Computing Language
PascalImperative and procedural language designed in the late 1960s
PerlHigh-level, general-purpose, interpreted, scripting, dynamic language
PikeInterpreted, general-purpose, high-level, cross-platform, dynamic language
PHPPHP has been at the helm of the web for many years
PonyPony is an actor-model, capabilities-secure, high-performance language
PostScriptPage description language in electronic and desktop publishing
PrologGeneral purpose, declarative, logic programming language
PureScriptSmall strongly, statically typed language with expressive types
PythonGeneral-purpose, structured, powerful language
QMLHierarchical declarative language for user interface layout with a syntax to JSON
RDe facto standard among statisticians and data analysts
RacketPlatform for programming language design and implementation
RakuMember of the Perl family of programming languages
RubyGeneral purpose, scripting, structured, flexible, fully object-oriented language
RustIdeal for systems, embedded, and other performance critical code
ScalaModern, object-functional, multi-paradigm, Java-based language
SchemeGeneral-purpose, functional, language descended from Lisp and Algol
ScratchVisual programming language designed for 8-16 year-old children
SolidityObject-oriented, high-level language for implementing smart contracts
SQLAccess and manipulate data held in a relational database management system
Standard MLOne of the two main dialects of the ML language
SwiftPowerful and intuitive general-purpose programming language
TclDynamic language based on concepts of Lisp, C, and Unix shells
TypeScriptStrict syntactical superset of JavaScript, adding optional static typing
VStatically typed compiled language to build maintainable software
ValaObject-oriented language with a self-hosting compiler that generates C code
VHDLVery High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language
VimLPowerful scripting language of the Vim editor
XMLSet of rules for defining semantic tags that describe the structure and meaning
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