Object–relational mapping (ORM) is a programming technique for converting data between incompatible type systems using object-oriented programming languages. This creates, in effect, a “virtual object database” that can be used from within the programming language.
In essence, ORM is a design pattern for converting (wrapping) that data stored within a relational database into an object that can be used within an object oriented language. It creates a layer between the language and the database, helping programmers work with data without the OOP paradigm.
Compared to traditional techniques of exchange between an object-oriented language and a relational database, ORM often reduces the amount of code that needs to be written. It standardizes interfaces reducing boilerplate and speeding development time. Advocates of ORMs claim they increase productivity, improve application design, reuse code and maintain the application over time. On the other hand, ORM suffers the disadvantage of the abstraction obscuring what’s happening in the code. And over-use of ORM software can produce poorly designed databases.
There are a fairly wide range of ORM software available. Here’s our recommendations summarized in a legendary ratings chart.
|Sequelize||Promise-based Node.js ORM for Postgres, MySQL, MariaDB, SQLite and more|
|Objection.js||ORM for Node.js that aims to stay out of your way|
|Bookshelf||ORM for Node.js, built on the Knex SQL query builder|
|Waterline||Adapter-based ORM for Node.js|
|Read our complete collection of recommended free and open source software. Our curated compilation covers all categories of software.
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