SQLAlchemy – Python SQL Toolkit and Object Relational Mapper

SQLAlchemy is the Python SQL toolkit and Object Relational Mapper that gives application developers the full power and flexibility of SQL.

It provides a full suite of well known enterprise-level persistence patterns, designed for efficient and high-performing database access, adapted into a simple and Pythonic domain language.

SQLAlchemy is free and open source software.

Features include:

  • Industrial strength ORM, built from the core on the identity map, unit of work, and data mapper patterns. These patterns allow transparent persistence of objects using a declarative configuration system. Domain models can be constructed and manipulated naturally, and changes are synchronized with the current transaction automatically.
  • Two distinct components, known as the Core and the ORM. The Core is itself a fully featured SQL abstraction toolkit, providing a smooth layer of abstraction over a wide variety of DBAPI implementations and behaviors, as well as a SQL Expression Language which allows expression of the SQL language via generative Python expressions. A schema representation system that can both emit DDL statements as well as introspect existing schemas, and a type system that allows any mapping of Python types to database types, rounds out the system. The Object Relational Mapper is then an optional package which builds upon the Core.
  • Mature, high performing architecture.
  • DBA Approved
  • The Unit Of Work system, a central part of SQLAlchemy’s Object Relational Mapper (ORM), organizes pending insert/update/delete operations into queues and flushes them all in one batch.
  • Function-based query construction allows SQL clauses to be built via Python functions and expressions.
  • Modular and extensible.
  • Separate mapping and class design.
  • Eager-loading and caching of related objects and collections.
  • Composite (multiple-column) primary keys.
  • Self-referential Object Mappings.
  • Inheritance Mapping.
  • Raw SQL statement mapping.
  • Pre- and post-processing of data.
  • Includes dialects for SQLite, Postgresql, MySQL, Oracle, MS-SQL, Firebird, Sybase and others, most of which support multiple DBAPIs.

Website: www.sqlalchemy.org
Support: GitHub Code Repository
Developer: Michael Bayer and many contributors
License: MIT License

SQLAlchemy is written in Python. Learn Python with our recommended free books and free tutorials.

Return to Python ORM Software Home Page


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