F# (pronounced F sharp) is a general purpose, strongly typed, multi-paradigm programming language that encompasses functional, imperative, and object-oriented programming methods. F# was modeled on Objective Caml (OCaml), a successful object-oriented functional programming language, and then tweaked and extended to mesh well technically and philosophically with .NET.
F# belongs to the ML family of languages and is ideal for implementing interpreters and compilers because it has datatypes and pattern matching and is strongly typed. This leads to a brevity and clarity of examples that cannot be matched by non-functional languages.
F# is valuable to programmers at any skill level; it combines many of the best features of functional and object-oriented programming styles into a uniquely productive language.
Here’s our recommended tutorials to learn F#. If you’re looking for reading material that’s more substantial, check out our recommended free F# books.
1. The “Thinking functionally” series by fsharpforfunandprofit.com
This series of posts will introduce you to the fundamentals of functional programming – what does it really mean to “program functionally”, and how this approach differs from object oriented or imperative programming.
2. F# For Beginners by Sacha
A collection of blog posts offering a good introduction to the language.
3. F# Tutorial by Derek Banas
This teaches the core syntax of the F# language. Topics cover functions, math, strings, looping, while, for interating, conditionals, and much more.
4. F# Cheatsheet by Anh-Dung Phan
This cheatsheet glances over some of the common syntax of F# 3.0.
5. Functional Koans – F# by Chris Marinos
Inspired by EdgeCase’s fantastic Ruby koans, the goal of the F# koans is to teach you F# through testing.
When you first run the koans, you’ll be presented with a runtime error and a stack trace indicating where the error occured. Your goal is to make the error go away. As you fix each error, you should learn something about the F# language and functional programming in general.
All tutorials in this series:
|Free Programming Tutorials|
|Java||General-purpose, concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, high-level language|
|C||General-purpose, procedural, portable, high-level language|
|Python||General-purpose, structured, powerful language|
|C++||General-purpose, portable, free-form, multi-paradigm language|
|C#||Combines the power and flexibility of C++ with the simplicity of Visual Basic|
|PHP||PHP has been at the helm of the web for many years|
|Ruby||General purpose, scripting, structured, flexible, fully object-oriented language|
|Assembly||As close to writing machine code without writing in pure hexadecimal|
|Swift||Powerful and intuitive general-purpose programming language|
|Groovy||Powerful, optionally typed and dynamic language|
|Go||Compiled, statically typed programming language|
|Pascal||Imperative and procedural language designed in the late 1960s|
|Perl||High-level, general-purpose, interpreted, scripting, dynamic language|
|R||De facto standard among statisticians and data analysts|
|COBOL||Common Business-Oriented Language|
|Scala||Modern, object-functional, multi-paradigm, Java-based language|
|Fortran||The first high-level language, using the first compiler|
|Scratch||Visual programming language designed for 8-16 year-old children|
|Lua||Designed as an embeddable scripting language|
|Logo||Dialect of Lisp that features interactivity, modularity, extensibility|
|Rust||Ideal for systems, embedded, and other performance critical code|
|Lisp||Unique features - excellent to study programming constructs|
|Ada||ALGOL-like programming language, extended from Pascal and others|
|Haskell||Standardized, general-purpose, polymorphically, statically typed language|
|Scheme||General-purpose, functional, language descended from Lisp and Algol|
|Prolog||General purpose, declarative, logic programming language|
|Forth||Imperative stack-based programming language|
|Clojure||Dialect of the Lisp programming language|
|Julia||High-level, high-performance language for technical computing|
|SQL||Access and manipulate data held in a relational database management system|
|Erlang||General-purpose, concurrent, declarative, functional language|
|VimL||Powerful scripting language of the Vim editor|
|OCaml||General-purpose, powerful, high-level language|
|Awk||Versatile language designed for pattern scanning and processing|
|Racket||Platform for programming language design and implementation|
|BASIC||Family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages|
|LaTeX||Professional document preparation system and document markup language|
|Elixir||Relatively new functional language that runs on the Erlang virtual machine|
|Dart||Client-optimized programming language for fast apps|
|ABAP||Advanced Business Application Programming|
|F#||General purpose, strongly typed, multi-paradigm language. Part of ML|
|Chapel||Parallel-programming language in development at Cray Inc.|
|Dylan||Multi-paradigm language, supports functional & object-oriented programming|
|D||General-purpose systems programming language with a C-like syntax|
|Solidity||Object-oriented, high-level language for implementing smart contracts|
|XML||Set of rules for defining semantic tags that describe the structure and meaning|
|Vala||Object-oriented language with a self-hosting compiler that generates C code|
|ECMAScript||Best known as the language embedded in web browsers|
|Kotlin||Statically typed, general-purpose programming language with type inference|
|Markdown||Plain text formatting syntax designed to be easy-to-read and easy-to-write|
|Pike||Interpreted, general-purpose, high-level, cross-platform, dynamic language|
|HTML||HyperText Markup Language|
|Factor||Dynamic stack-based language|
|Objective-C||General purpose language which is a superset of C|
|Standard ML||One of the two main dialects of the ML language|
|Alice||Educational language with an integrated development environment|
|Agda||Dependently typed functional language based on intuitionistic type theory|
|Icon||High-level, general-purpose language|
|PureScript||Small strongly, statically typed language with expressive types|
|Tcl||Dynamic language based on concepts of Lisp, C, and Unix shells|