Structured Query Language (SQL) is a specialized programming language originally developed by IBM in the early 1970s. The language is designed specifically for accessing and manipulating data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS).
Almost all database management systems have a SQL implementation. It is the most popular query language for database administrators, as it provides good functionality, power, and relative ease of use. It is widely used in both industry and academia, often for large, complex databases.
SQL was standardized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1986 and has undergone many revisions. The language consists of a data definition language and a data manipulation language. The language is divided into a number of elements: clauses, expressions, predicates, queries, and statements. SQL is one of the easiest languages to learn and use.
Here’s our recommended tutorials to learn SQL. If you’re looking for free SQL programming books, check here.
1. SQL Tutorial
This SQL tutorial series covers all the fundamental concepts of SQL language, such as creating database and tables, using constraints, adding records to a table, selecting records from a table based on different conditions, updating and deleting records in a table, and so on.
Once you’re familiar with the basics, you’ll move on to next level that explains the methods of retrieving records through joining multiple tables, searching records in the table based on pattern, etc.
Finally, you’ll explore some advanced concepts, such as modifying the existing table structure, performing aggregations and grouping data together, creating views to simplify and secure table access, creating indexes for tables, handling dates and times, cloning of an existing table, creating temporary tables, as well as, concept of SQL subqueries and SQL injection.
2. SQL Tutorial for Beginners: Learn SQL in 7 Days
SQL is the standard language to query a database. This course will teach you database design. Also, it teaches you basic to advanced SQL.
3. SQL Tutorial
This tutorial will teach you how to use SQL in: MySQL, SQL Server, MS Access, Oracle, Sybase, Informix, Postgres, and other database systems.
4. SQL Tutorial
This tutorial will give you a quick start to SQL. It covers most of the topics required for a basic understanding of SQL and to get a feel of how it works.
All tutorials in this series:
|Free Programming Tutorials|
|Java||General-purpose, concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, high-level language|
|C||General-purpose, procedural, portable, high-level language|
|Python||General-purpose, structured, powerful language|
|C++||General-purpose, portable, free-form, multi-paradigm language|
|C#||Combines the power and flexibility of C++ with the simplicity of Visual Basic|
|PHP||PHP has been at the helm of the web for many years|
|Ruby||General purpose, scripting, structured, flexible, fully object-oriented language|
|Assembly||As close to writing machine code without writing in pure hexadecimal|
|Swift||Powerful and intuitive general-purpose programming language|
|Groovy||Powerful, optionally typed and dynamic language|
|Go||Compiled, statically typed programming language|
|Pascal||Imperative and procedural language designed in the late 1960s|
|Perl||High-level, general-purpose, interpreted, scripting, dynamic language|
|R||De facto standard among statisticians and data analysts|
|COBOL||Common Business-Oriented Language|
|Scala||Modern, object-functional, multi-paradigm, Java-based language|
|Fortran||The first high-level language, using the first compiler|
|Scratch||Visual programming language designed for 8-16 year-old children|
|Lua||Designed as an embeddable scripting language|
|Logo||Dialect of Lisp that features interactivity, modularity, extensibility|
|Rust||Ideal for systems, embedded, and other performance critical code|
|Lisp||Unique features - excellent to study programming constructs|
|Ada||ALGOL-like programming language, extended from Pascal and others|
|Haskell||Standardized, general-purpose, polymorphically, statically typed language|
|Scheme||General-purpose, functional, language descended from Lisp and Algol|
|Prolog||General purpose, declarative, logic programming language|
|Forth||Imperative stack-based programming language|
|Clojure||Dialect of the Lisp programming language|
|Julia||High-level, high-performance language for technical computing|
|SQL||Access and manipulate data held in a relational database management system|
|Erlang||General-purpose, concurrent, declarative, functional language|
|VimL||Powerful scripting language of the Vim editor|
|OCaml||General-purpose, powerful, high-level language|
|Awk||Versatile language designed for pattern scanning and processing|
|Racket||Platform for programming language design and implementation|
|BASIC||Family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages|
|LaTeX||Professional document preparation system and document markup language|
|Elixir||Relatively new functional language that runs on the Erlang virtual machine|
|Dart||Client-optimized programming language for fast apps|
|ABAP||Advanced Business Application Programming|
|F#||General purpose, strongly typed, multi-paradigm language. Part of ML|
|Chapel||Parallel-programming language in development at Cray Inc.|
|Dylan||Multi-paradigm language, supports functional & object-oriented programming|
|D||General-purpose systems programming language with a C-like syntax|
|Solidity||Object-oriented, high-level language for implementing smart contracts|
|XML||Set of rules for defining semantic tags that describe the structure and meaning|
|Vala||Object-oriented language with a self-hosting compiler that generates C code|
|ECMAScript||Best known as the language embedded in web browsers|
|Kotlin||Statically typed, general-purpose programming language with type inference|
|Markdown||Plain text formatting syntax designed to be easy-to-read and easy-to-write|
|Pike||Interpreted, general-purpose, high-level, cross-platform, dynamic language|
|HTML||HyperText Markup Language|
|Factor||Dynamic stack-based language|
|Objective-C||General purpose language which is a superset of C|
|Standard ML||One of the two main dialects of the ML language|
|Alice||Educational language with an integrated development environment|
|Agda||Dependently typed functional language based on intuitionistic type theory|
|Icon||High-level, general-purpose language|
|PureScript||Small strongly, statically typed language with expressive types|
|Tcl||Dynamic language based on concepts of Lisp, C, and Unix shells|