Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, wide-spectrum, multi-paradigm, object-oriented high-level, ALGOL-like programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages. The language was developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Ada is named after Augusta Ada Byron (often now known as Ada Lovelace), daughter of the poet Lord Byron.
Ada has built-in language support for explicit concurrency, offering tasks, synchronous message passing, protected objects, and non-determinism. Ada incorporates the benefits of object-oriented languages without incurring the pervasive overheads.
Other notable features of Ada include: strong typing, inherent reliability, modularity mechanisms (packages), run-time checking, parallel processing, exception handling, the ability to provide abstraction through the package and private type, and generics.
Ada is particularly strong in areas such as real-time applications, low-level hardware access, and safety-critical software, as it has specialized design features, and high reliability. Most errors are detected at compile time and of those remaining many are detected by runtime constraints. While Ada was originally targeted at embedded and real time systems, the Ada 95 revision added support for object-oriented (including dynamic dispatch), numerical, financial, and systems programming. With its readability, scalability, and being designed for development of very large software systems, Ada is a good choice for open source development.
Here’s our recommended tutorials to learn Ada. If you’re looking for free Ada programming books, check here.
1. Ada-95: A guide for C and C++ programmers by Simon Johnston
Ada-95: A guide for C and C++ programmers is a tutorial for C and C++ programmers to show them what Ada can provide and how to set about turning the knowledge and experience they have gained in C/C++ into good Ada programming.
2. Ada 95 tutorial by Gordon Dodrill
This tutorial teaches the entire Ada 95 dialect of the Ada language. It’s composed of 33 chapters which should be studied in order since topics are introduced in a logical order and build upon topics introduced in previous chapters.
3. Ada–A Crash Course by Peter C. Chapin
The purpose of this tutorial is to give you an overview of Ada so that you can start writing Ada programs quickly. This tutorial does not attempt to cover the entire language.
4. TutorialAda by Peter C. Chapin
TutorialAda is an Ada programming language tutorial with samples. This tutorial covers a variety of topics in varying levels of depth.
5. Ada95 Lovelace tutorial by David A. Wheeler
This tutorial explains the basics of the Ada computer programming language. This tutorial assumes that you have had some exposure to another algorithmic programming language (such as Pascal, C, C++, or Fortran).
6. AdaTutor by John J. Herro
AdaTutor is an Ada 95 tutorial program. It only touches on Ada 95 and does not contain information for Ada 2005 and 2012.
7. Quick Ada by Dale Stanbrough
There’s a PDF version, and a PostScript version of the notes.
8. Ada – A quick crash course by Patrik Broman
This is a quick course for someone who knows how to program, and needs to quickly understand the basic syntax of Ada.
9. Ada Quality and Style Guide by Wikibooks
This style guide is an update to the Ada 95 Quality and Style Guide to reflect the latest update to the Ada language, commonly called Ada 2012. The purpose of this guide is to help computer professionals produce better Ada programs by identifying a set of stylistic guidelines that will directly impact the quality of their Ada programs.
All tutorials in this series:
|Free Programming Tutorials|
|ABAP||Advanced Business Application Programming|
|Ada||ALGOL-like programming language, extended from Pascal and others|
|Agda||Dependently typed functional language based on intuitionistic type theory|
|Alice||Educational language with an integrated development environment|
|Arduino||Inexpensive, flexible, open source microcontroller platform|
|Assembly||As close to writing machine code without writing in pure hexadecimal|
|Awk||Versatile language designed for pattern scanning and processing|
|Bash||‘Bourne-Again-SHell’ is both a shell and programming language|
|BASIC||Family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages|
|C||General-purpose, procedural, portable, high-level language|
|C++||General-purpose, portable, free-form, multi-paradigm language|
|C#||Combines the power and flexibility of C++ with the simplicity of Visual Basic|
|Chapel||Parallel-programming language in development at Cray Inc.|
|Clojure||Dialect of the Lisp programming language|
|COBOL||Common Business-Oriented Language|
|Coq||Dependently typed language similar to Agda, Idris, F*, Lean, and others|
|Crystal||General-purpose, concurrent, multi-paradigm, object-oriented language|
|CSS||CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) specifies a web page’s appearance|
|D||General-purpose systems programming language with a C-like syntax|
|Dart||Client-optimized programming language for fast apps|
|Dylan||Multi-paradigm language, supports functional & object-oriented programming|
|ECMAScript||Best known as the language embedded in web browsers|
|Elixir||Relatively new functional language that runs on the Erlang virtual machine|
|Emacs Lisp||A dialect of the Lisp programming language.|
|Erlang||General-purpose, concurrent, declarative, functional language|
|F#||General purpose, strongly typed, multi-paradigm language. Part of ML|
|Factor||Dynamic stack-based language|
|Forth||Imperative stack-based programming language|
|Fortran||The first high-level language, using the first compiler|
|GDScript||Godot’s built-in language for scripting and interacting with nodes|
|Go||Compiled, statically typed programming language|
|Groovy||Powerful, optionally typed and dynamic language|
|Hack||For the HipHop Virtual Machine (HHVM), created as a dialect of PHP|
|Haml||HTML Abstraction Markup Language|
|Haskell||Standardized, general-purpose, polymorphically, statically typed language|
|HTML||HyperText Markup Language|
|Icon||High-level, general-purpose language|
|J||Array programming language based primarily on APL|
|Java||General-purpose, concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, high-level language|
|Julia||High-level, high-performance language for technical computing|
|Kotlin||Statically typed, general-purpose programming language with type inference|
|LabVIEW||Designed to enable domain experts to build power systems quickly|
|LaTeX||Professional document preparation system and document markup language|
|Less||Backwards-compatible language extension for Cascading Style Sheets|
|Limbo||Designed for applications running distributed systems on small computers|
|Lisp||Unique features - excellent to study programming constructs|
|Logo||Dialect of Lisp that features interactivity, modularity, extensibility|
|Lua||Designed as an embeddable scripting language|
|Markdown||Plain text formatting syntax designed to be easy-to-read and easy-to-write|
|MoonScript||Dynamic scripting programmer friendly language that compiles into Lua|
|Nim||Statically typed compiled systems language with syntax resembling Python|
|Objective-C||General purpose language which is a superset of C|
|OCaml||General-purpose, powerful, high-level language|
|Octave||High-level language, primarily intended for numerical computations|
|OpenCL||Open Computing Language|
|Pascal||Imperative and procedural language designed in the late 1960s|
|Perl||High-level, general-purpose, interpreted, scripting, dynamic language|
|Pike||Interpreted, general-purpose, high-level, cross-platform, dynamic language|
|PHP||PHP has been at the helm of the web for many years|
|Pony||Pony is an actor-model, capabilities-secure, high-performance language|
|PostScript||Page description language in electronic and desktop publishing|
|Prolog||General purpose, declarative, logic programming language|
|PureScript||Small strongly, statically typed language with expressive types|
|Python||General-purpose, structured, powerful language|
|QML||Hierarchical declarative language for user interface layout with a syntax to JSON|
|R||De facto standard among statisticians and data analysts|
|Racket||Platform for programming language design and implementation|
|Raku||Member of the Perl family of programming languages|
|Roff||Extensible text formatting language and a set of programs for printing|
|Ruby||General purpose, scripting, structured, flexible, fully object-oriented language|
|Rust||Ideal for systems, embedded, and other performance critical code|
|Scala||Modern, object-functional, multi-paradigm, Java-based language|
|Scheme||General-purpose, functional, language descended from Lisp and Algol|
|Scratch||Visual programming language designed for 8-16 year-old children|
|Solidity||Object-oriented, high-level language for implementing smart contracts|
|SQL||Access and manipulate data held in a relational database management system|
|Standard ML||One of the two main dialects of the ML language|
|Swift||Powerful and intuitive general-purpose programming language|
|Tcl||Dynamic language based on concepts of Lisp, C, and Unix shells|
|V||Statically typed compiled language to build maintainable software|
|Vala||Object-oriented language with a self-hosting compiler that generates C code|
|VHDL||Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language|
|VimL||Powerful scripting language of the Vim editor|
|XML||Set of rules for defining semantic tags that describe the structure and meaning|
|Zig||General-purpose programming language and toolchain|