The R language is the de facto standard among statisticians for the development of statistical software, and is widely used for statistical software development and data analysis. R is a modern dialect of S, one of several statistical programming languages designed at Bell Laboratories.
R is much more than a programming language. It’s an interactive suite of software facilities for data manipulation, calculation, and graphical display. R offers a wide variety of statistical (linear and nonlinear modelling, classical statistical tests, time-series analysis, classification, clustering, …) and graphical techniques, and is highly extensible. The ability to download and install R packages is a key factor which makes R an excellent language to learn. What else makes R awesome? Here’s a taster.
- It’s free, open source, and available for every major platform. So anyone can repeat your work whatever platform they run.
- A huge set of high quality packages for statistical modelling, machine learning, visualization, and importing and manipulating data.
- Cutting edge tools.
- A suite of operators for calculations on arrays, in particular matrices.
- Deep-seated language support for data analysis. This includes features likes missing values, data frames, and subsetting.
- Powerful tools for communicating your results.
- Produce publication-quality graphs, including mathematical symbols. Dynamic and interactive graphics are available through additional packages. R packages make it easy to produce HTML or PDF, and create interactive websites with Shiny, a sublime R package.
- A strong foundation in functional programming. The ideas of functional programming are well suited to solving many of the challenges of data analysis. R provides a powerful and flexible toolkit which allows you to write concise yet descriptive code.
- RStudio, a powerful integrated development environment.
- Powerful metaprogramming facilities; a fantastic environment for interactive data analysis.
- Connects to high-performance programming languages like C, Fortran, and C++.
- An amazingly vibrant and helpful community.
Packages are the fundamental units of reproducible R code. They include reusable R functions, the documentation that describes how to use them, and sample data. The CRAN package repository hosts over 15,000 packages, and Bioconductor is home to over 1,800 packages.
Here’s our recommended tutorials to learn R. If you’re looking for free R programming books, check here.
1. Introduction to R and RStudio for Data Science by LinuxLinks
This is a crash course in data science designed for the absolute beginner. Get up to speed in 20 minutes. It assumes only basic computer skills and no programming knowledge. If you’re interested in learning about data science, this is a great place to start.
2. Cookbook for R by Winston Chang
The goal of the cookbook is to provide solutions to common tasks and problems in analyzing data.
3. R Tutorial for Beginners: Learning R Programming by guru99
This is a complete course on R for beginners and covers basics to advance topics like machine learning algorithm, linear regression, time series, statistical inference etc.
4. Elementary Statistics with R by R Tutorial
The R solutions are short, self-contained and requires minimal R skill. Most of them are just a few lines in length.
5. R Tutorial by Kelly Black
These materials are designed to offer an introduction to the use of R. It is not exhaustive, but is designed to just provide the basics. It has been developed for students who are new to R but have had some basic experience working with computers.
6. R Programming Tutorials by thenewboston
A set of videos with good coverage.
7. 15 Page Tutorial for R by Study Trails
A 15 page example based tutorial that covers the basics of R.
These tutorials are designed for beginners in R, but they can also be used by experienced programmers as a refresher course or as reference.
All tutorials in this series:
|Free Programming Tutorials|
|ABAP||Advanced Business Application Programming|
|Ada||ALGOL-like programming language, extended from Pascal and others|
|Agda||Dependently typed functional language based on intuitionistic type theory|
|Alice||Educational language with an integrated development environment|
|Arduino||Inexpensive, flexible, open source microcontroller platform|
|Assembly||As close to writing machine code without writing in pure hexadecimal|
|Awk||Versatile language designed for pattern scanning and processing|
|Bash||‘Bourne-Again-SHell’ is both a shell and programming language|
|BASIC||Family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages|
|C||General-purpose, procedural, portable, high-level language|
|C++||General-purpose, portable, free-form, multi-paradigm language|
|C#||Combines the power and flexibility of C++ with the simplicity of Visual Basic|
|Chapel||Parallel-programming language in development at Cray Inc.|
|Clojure||Dialect of the Lisp programming language|
|COBOL||Common Business-Oriented Language|
|Coq||Dependently typed language similar to Agda, Idris, F*, Lean, and others|
|Crystal||General-purpose, concurrent, multi-paradigm, object-oriented language|
|CSS||CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) specifies a web page’s appearance|
|D||General-purpose systems programming language with a C-like syntax|
|Dart||Client-optimized programming language for fast apps|
|Dylan||Multi-paradigm language, supports functional & object-oriented programming|
|ECMAScript||Best known as the language embedded in web browsers|
|Elixir||Relatively new functional language that runs on the Erlang virtual machine|
|Emacs Lisp||A dialect of the Lisp programming language.|
|Erlang||General-purpose, concurrent, declarative, functional language|
|F#||General purpose, strongly typed, multi-paradigm language. Part of ML|
|Factor||Dynamic stack-based language|
|Forth||Imperative stack-based programming language|
|Fortran||The first high-level language, using the first compiler|
|GDScript||Godot’s built-in language for scripting and interacting with nodes|
|Go||Compiled, statically typed programming language|
|Groovy||Powerful, optionally typed and dynamic language|
|Hack||For the HipHop Virtual Machine (HHVM), created as a dialect of PHP|
|Haml||HTML Abstraction Markup Language|
|Haskell||Standardized, general-purpose, polymorphically, statically typed language|
|HTML||HyperText Markup Language|
|Icon||High-level, general-purpose language|
|J||Array programming language based primarily on APL|
|Java||General-purpose, concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, high-level language|
|Julia||High-level, high-performance language for technical computing|
|Kotlin||Statically typed, general-purpose programming language with type inference|
|LabVIEW||Designed to enable domain experts to build power systems quickly|
|LaTeX||Professional document preparation system and document markup language|
|Less||Backwards-compatible language extension for Cascading Style Sheets|
|Limbo||Designed for applications running distributed systems on small computers|
|Lisp||Unique features - excellent to study programming constructs|
|Logo||Dialect of Lisp that features interactivity, modularity, extensibility|
|Lua||Designed as an embeddable scripting language|
|Markdown||Plain text formatting syntax designed to be easy-to-read and easy-to-write|
|MoonScript||Dynamic scripting programmer friendly language that compiles into Lua|
|Nim||Statically typed compiled systems language with syntax resembling Python|
|Objective-C||General purpose language which is a superset of C|
|OCaml||General-purpose, powerful, high-level language|
|Octave||High-level language, primarily intended for numerical computations|
|OpenCL||Open Computing Language|
|Pascal||Imperative and procedural language designed in the late 1960s|
|Perl||High-level, general-purpose, interpreted, scripting, dynamic language|
|Pike||Interpreted, general-purpose, high-level, cross-platform, dynamic language|
|PHP||PHP has been at the helm of the web for many years|
|Pony||Pony is an actor-model, capabilities-secure, high-performance language|
|PostScript||Page description language in electronic and desktop publishing|
|Prolog||General purpose, declarative, logic programming language|
|PureScript||Small strongly, statically typed language with expressive types|
|Python||General-purpose, structured, powerful language|
|QML||Hierarchical declarative language for user interface layout with a syntax to JSON|
|R||De facto standard among statisticians and data analysts|
|Racket||Platform for programming language design and implementation|
|Raku||Member of the Perl family of programming languages|
|Ruby||General purpose, scripting, structured, flexible, fully object-oriented language|
|Rust||Ideal for systems, embedded, and other performance critical code|
|Scala||Modern, object-functional, multi-paradigm, Java-based language|
|Scheme||General-purpose, functional, language descended from Lisp and Algol|
|Scratch||Visual programming language designed for 8-16 year-old children|
|Solidity||Object-oriented, high-level language for implementing smart contracts|
|SQL||Access and manipulate data held in a relational database management system|
|Standard ML||One of the two main dialects of the ML language|
|Swift||Powerful and intuitive general-purpose programming language|
|Tcl||Dynamic language based on concepts of Lisp, C, and Unix shells|
|V||Statically typed compiled language to build maintainable software|
|Vala||Object-oriented language with a self-hosting compiler that generates C code|
|VHDL||Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language|
|VimL||Powerful scripting language of the Vim editor|
|XML||Set of rules for defining semantic tags that describe the structure and meaning|