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Linux Guide - C


  • C
    a programming language designed by Dennis Ritchie during the early 1970s and immediately used to reimplement Unix; so called because many features derived from an earlier compiler named `B' in commemoration of its parent, BCPL
  • C Shell
    A Linux shell written to look sort of like the C programming language. It prompts you with %. Its program name is csh
  • C++
    Designed by Bjarne Stroustrup of AT&T Bell Labs as a successor to C. Now one of the languages of choice
  • cache
    A small fast memory holding recently accessed data, designed to speed up subsequent access to the same data. Most often applied to processor-memory access but also used for a local copy of data accessible over a network etc
  • cal
    Displays a simple calendar. If arguments are not specified, the current month is displayed.
  • Camel Book
    The Universally recognized nickname for the book "Programming Perl", by Larry Wall and Randal L. Schwartz, O'Reilly and Associates 1991, ISBN 0-937175-64-1
  • cat
    concatenate files and print on the standard output
  • cd
    change directory - ; cd .. moves you backwards to the next higher subdirectory level; cd / moves you to the highest directory level
  • CD-DA
    Compact disc digital audio - a standard that allows for up to 74 minutes of digital sound that's transferred at 150 kilobytes per second (K/sec)
  • CGI
    Common Gateway Interface is the programming interface between the system holding the data (in our case an SQL-based system) and the network protocol (HTML, of course)
  • CGM
    A non-proprietary vector graphics file format
  • CHAP
    Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol - used to verify a user's name and password for PPP Internet connections. It is more secure than the other main authentication protocol (PAP)
  • checksum
    A number computed by adding together all the characters from an entire file in a special mathematical way. It is useful for ensuring a file has been transferred correctly
  • chgrp
    Changes the group ownership of each given file to group, which can be either a group name or a numeric group ID.
  • child process
    A process created by another process (the parent process). Each process may create many child processes but will have only one parent process, except for the very first process which has no parent. The first process, called init in Linux, is started by the kernel at boot time and never terminates
  • chmod
    changes the permissions for a file; permissions should include a letter designating who gets permissions (u for the user, g for the group, o for others, or a for all) followed by a + or - (to give or take away the permission) followed by the kind of permission (r for read access, w for write access, x for execute if the file is a program or script)
  • chown
    changes the user and/or group ownership of each given file as specified by the first non-option argument as follows
  • chroot
    Makes the root directory (/) become something other than its default for the lifetime of the current process. It can only be run by privileged users and is used to give a process (commonly a network server such as FTP or HTTP) access to a restricted portion of the file system
  • CHS
    stands for Cylinder/Head/Sector
  • CIFS
    Common Internet File System: a protocol that defines a standard for remote file access using millions of computers at a time
  • client
    A machine that requests resources from other machines (servers). A client application, e.g. the popular email client elm, is a program that makes requests on other applications for information.
  • client-server
    A common form of distributed system in which software is split between server tasks and client tasks. A client sends requests to a server, according to some protocol, asking for information or action, and the server responds
  • CLU
    Command Line Utility: a program that can be executed from the command prompt. Examples of command line utilities in Linux are ls, dd, tar and gzip.
  • Cluster
    Range from a conventional network of workstations (NOW) to essentially custom parallel machines that just happen to use Linux PCs as processor nodes
    COmmon Business-Oriented Language - A weak, verbose, and flabby language used by card wallopers to do boring mindless things on dinosaur mainframes
  • COLA
    stands for comp.os.linux.announce - a moderated linux newsgroup for announcing linux related material
  • command
    In a Linux-based network, a Linux system that uses the file systems provided by another Linux system. In the X window system, it is an application program which depends on the display serve
  • command line interface
    A means of communication between a program and its user, based solely on textual input and output. Commands are input with the help of a keyboard or similar device and are interpreted and executed by the program. Results are output as text or graphics to the terminal
  • compile
    To turn a program from source code into an executable machine code file
  • Compiled language
    Get translated into runnable files of binary machine code by a special program called (logically enough) a compiler. Once the binary has been generated, you can run it directly without looking at the source code again.
  • compiler
    A computer program that translates high-level programs, called source files, into low-level programs, called object files
  • Compression
    The compacting of files to save storage space and reduce transfer time. Compression uses algorithms such as Lempel-Ziv, LZW and Huffman coding
  • compression methods
    There are two types: With lossless compression none of the original information is lost. Generally such compression can reduce the file size by about 50%. A popular lossless compression for graphics files is .tga (Targa) or for data .gz and .zip. The other compression method is lossy compression where some of the original information is lost. Lossy compression methods can reduce the file size often by 300% but are unsuitable in many situations. They are particularly useful for the compression of graphic files with JPEG compression being the most popular, especially as they help to reduce bandwidth.
  • concatenate
    To join two or more files or segments of text to form a single unit. The cat command, which is an abbreviation of this word, concatenates files
  • console
    A computer system's main terminal, from which system administration is performed. In Linux it is identified by the device file /dev/console.
  • cooked mode
    A mode in which input is accepted command line by command line rather than character by character. Cooked mode, the default for the Linux system, is the opposite of raw mode
  • cookie
    A handle, transaction ID, or other token of agreement between cooperating programs
    an architecture and specification for creating, distributing, and managing distributed program objects in a network
  • core dump
    a copy of the contents of core, produced when a process is aborted by certain kinds of internal error. It is useful to determine the nature of a program crash
  • Cox, Alan
    An important developer of the Linux kernel including developing Linux networking, SMP. Other projects he has worked on include Linux/SGI, Linux/Mac68K, Linux/8086 ports, TV card drivers and Linux sound.
  • cp
    copy files and directories
  • CPU
    Central Processing Unit: the main processor in a computer
  • cron
    A Linux daemon that periodically checks the contents of a file called /var/lib/crontab and carries out any tasks due to be performed.
  • crontab
    A short name for file /var/lib/crontab, which contains a list of Linux commands to be performed at specific times. A system administrator can use crontab as an automatic timer to trigger the initiation of important jobs
  • Cryptography
    The study of codes, cryptography refers to the making and breaking of algorithms to conceal or otherwise encrypt information. One of the most popular internet encryption schemes is PGP
  • ctime
    Unix jargon for "the time a file's status last changed". (cf. atime, mtime)
  • cursor
    Normally a block character which marks the place for input on a computer screen.
  • CVS
    Concurrent Versions System: the dominant open-source network-transparent version control system

Key:Commands - People - General

Last Updated Saturday, October 29 2005 @ 03:11 AM EDT

We have written a range of guides highlighting excellent free books for popular programming languages. Check out the following guides: C, C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, CoffeeScript, HTML, Python, Ruby, Perl, Haskell, PHP, Lisp, R, Prolog, Scala, Scheme, Forth, SQL, Node.js (new), Fortran (new), Erlang (new), Pascal (new), and Ada (new).

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