A hole in the security of a system deliberately left in place by designers or
to make a copy of important data onto a different storage medium. Backing up
to tape is essential system maintenance.
A high-speed line or series of connections that forms a major pathway within a
Processing that a system performs without requiring interaction with the user.
In Linux, append an ampersand (&) to the command line to request background
A process that runs without interacting with a terminal. Because each user in
a Linux system is allowed to have a number of background processes running
simultaneously, Linux is called a multitasking system.
A character (\) that is used in shell statements to quote another character
(that is, to remove its special meaning to the shell). For example, if you
want to use a dollar sign as a dollar sign, rather than as a symbol for end of
line, enter \$
A copy of a file (or a group of files) that is stored off-line in the event
that a computer system fails, losing or damaging the original file or files
A measure of the amount of data a network can send or receive at one time
Denoted by the ! character. The C shell command !!, which repeats the last
command, for example, is pronounced "Bang!Bang!"
A series of names that specifies a path between two nodes. It is sometimes
used for email or BITNET as well as in the Linux uucp program. The path
consists of machine or domain names separated by ! (bang).
A way to separate printing jobs which often indicates the owner of the file
that has been printed.
the name of a file minus any extension that may be included in the full name.
For example, if the full name of the source file for a C program is combine.c,
its basename is combine
Descended from the Bourne Shell, Bash is a GNU product, the "Bourne Again
SHell." It's the standard command line interface on most Linux machines.
Beginners All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code: a non-structured language
that is often considered the easiest to start programming. It was developed as
an interactive, mainframe timesharing language that received fame with home
computers in the 1980s.
measures of the rate at which signals are transmitted over a
telecommunications link. It is equivalent to the number of elements or pulses
transmitted in one second
Bulletin Board System - A computer you can dial to access files and
participate in electronic discussions. BBSs are sometimes not networked and
may provide partial net access often through email
a staff scientist with the Center for Excellence in Space Data and
Information Sciences (CESDIS). Donald has been extremely influential in the
development of low-cost, high-performance parallel computing as the chief
investigator of the Beowulf Project. Becker has written enhancements to the
kernel network subsystem to support faster I/O on high-speed networks, device
drivers for countless Ethernet cards, and a distributed shared-memory package
although the Apache web server is largely a community effort, Behlendorf is
probably one of its most important developers .
a multi computer architecture which can be used for parallel computations. It
is a system which usually consists of one server node, and one or more client
nodes connected together via Ethernet or some other network. It is a system
built using commodity hardware components, like any PC capable of running
Linux, standard Ethernet adapters, and switches
beta software Development copies that are released prior to the full version. They are
released to aid debugging of the software and to obtain real world reports of
its operation. An expiry date is often built into the software. See alpha
A network routing protocol
It describes the order in which bytes of a word are processed. Many RISC
computers and 68000 processors use big-endian representations where the
high-order byte is stored at the lower address.
A directory that contains executable programs, the majority of which are
stored in binary files. Most programs are found in directories /bin and /usr/bin;
however, users often keep additional programs in private bin directories, such
a file that contains codes which are not part of the ASCII character set. A
binary file can contain any type of information that can be represented by an
8 bit byte - a possible 256 values
BINary HEXadecimal - A method for converting non-text files (non-ASCII) into
Basic Input/Output System: services on a ROM chip that enable the hardware and
software of a computer to communicate with each other.
A wireless technology that uses short-range radio frequencies to allow
communication between many different devices.
`BogoMips' is a contraction of `Bogus MIPS'. MIPS stands for (depending who
you listen to) Millions of Instructions per Second, or Meaningless Indication
of Processor Speed
To 'boot' a computer is to start the operating system. A boot can be a "hard
boot" or a "soft boot". A restart may be to the lowest level of the CPU's
control program (BIOS), or slightly higher, depending on whether it is a hard
or soft boot and the design of the computer system. In any case, the
"operating system" is restarted from the beginning
a miniature, self-contained Linux system on a floppy diskette
The ROM routine used to load the OS is often known as the 'bootstrap', from
the old expression "pull yourself up by your own bootstraps"
an IRC or MUD user who is actually a program. On IRC, typically the robot
provides some useful service. Examples are NickServ, which tries to prevent
random users from adopting nicks already claimed by others, and MsgServ, which
allows one to send asynchronous messages to be delivered when the recipient
This describes the action of an undeliverable email message being returned to
the sender. In the popular pine program the term bounce actually refers to the
redirection of an email.
The Bourne shell is the most widely used Unix shell.It prompts you with $.Its
program name is sh
Any device that connects two physically distinct network segments, usually at
a lower network layer than would a router
a type of communication between hosts (or computers) on a network where a
computer can talk to all computers. See multicast and unicast
A temporary storage space which holds data for future processing. The data may
be stored on a hard disk, in RAM or on specialised chips such as UARTs.
Common coding style is to never allocate large enough buffers, and to not
check for overflows. When such buffers overflow, the executing program (daemon
or set-uid program) can be tricked in doing some other things. Generally this
works by overwriting a function's return address on the stack to point to
A bug is a flaw in design, coding or manufacture of software which causes all
-- or some portion -- of a program to not perform as expected.
An internal communication network in a computer system. A typical system
includes an address bus, a data bus, and a control bus. The width of the
address bus determines the amount of memory that can be addressed by the
Bus Master DMA
A technology for increasing the speed of hard disk data transfers which
requires support from the motherboard and the BIOS, and at least some support
from the drive
Eight bits in a row. That is a series of eight pieces of information, each of
which can be either 1 or 0
This refers to the order in which bytes that are ordered in memory as
n,n+1,... are ordered when a computer considers multiple bytes as one integer.
Big-endian computers use bytes with lower addresses for the bits with higher
powers of two. PowerPC, m68k, HP-PA-RISC, IBM-370, PDP-10, most other
computers use this. Little-endian computers use the opposite convention. i86,
PDP-11, VAX, uses this
Bzip2 a new algorithm for compressing data. It generally makes files that are
60-70% of the size of their gzip'd counterparts
Last Updated Saturday, October 29 2005 @ 03:10 AM EDT