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Programming Languages to Shake up the Mix?

Programming Languages to Shake up the Mix?

Like a fine wine, programming languages get better with age. Programming languages take years to become established and dominant. The deciding factor for many programmers when selecting a language for a particular project has been popularity and language acceptance, so this is a hard cycle to break for newcomers.

The chart below depicts the most commonly used programming languages (with the exception of Assembler) and the date that they first appeared. As you can see, there are 20 languages shown, and not one of them first appeared after the year 2000. Some of them stepped forward decades ago into the public horizon, and yet still remain popular to this day.

Appearance of Programming Languages

There is a plethora of mature programming languages to choose from with all different types. Functional languages, object-oriented languages, dynamic languages, compiled languages, declarative languages, interpreted languages, scripting languages, and imperative languages are some of the different language types.

Even with these mature competitors, new languages still continue to emerge at a surprising frequency. Some of the new languages are created by large corporations looking to usurp their rivals' languages, others have started as personal projects snowballing with contributions from other developers. Programming is constantly developing. We have witnessed hardware changes such as multicore CPUs and general purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPUs), as well as cloud computing and distributed architectures. Existing languages do not always lend themselves well to the new possibilities that are available.

Multicore machines and hyperthreading technology have enabled marked performance improvements to computionally intensive applications. The GPU offers the potential for even higher performance, and not confined only to graphics rendering. With a massively parallel array of integer and floating-point processors and high-speed memory, the GPU can accelerate applications that are computionally intensive and massively parallel.

This article looks at 11 newfangled programming languages, each of which approaches programming in a fresh, modern way. Whilst it is unlikely that many of these languages will displace the established languages, a few may become mainstream. OpenCL is the most mature framework for writing programs that execute across CPUs, GPUs, and other processors. We also include two other GPU programming languages worthy of recognition.

Now, let's explore the 11 programming languages at hand. For each title we have compiled its own portal page, a full description with an in-depth analysis of its features, together with links to relevant resources and reviews.

New Programming Languages
Dart Structured web programming developed by Google
Julia Fresh approach to scientific computing
Clojure Dynamic programming language targeting the Java Virtual Machine
Haxe General-purpose, high-level, multiplatform programming language
Fantom General purpose object-oriented programming language
OpenCL Open Computing Language
Elixir Modern approach to programming for the Erlang VM
Go Concurrent, garbage-collected language with fast compilation
Rust Safe, concurrent, practical language
Ceylon Cross-platform execution, modularity, great tooling
Harlan Declarative, domain specific language for programming GPUs

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Last Updated Monday, May 05 2014 @ 02:46 AM EDT

We have written a range of guides highlighting excellent free books for popular programming languages. Check out the following guides: C, C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, CoffeeScript, HTML, Python, Ruby, Perl, Haskell, PHP, Lisp, R, Prolog, Scala, Scheme, Forth, SQL, Node.js (new), Fortran (new), Erlang (new), Pascal (new), and Ada (new).

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