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9 of the Best Free Prolog Books - Part 3

9 of the Best Free Prolog Books - Part 3

7. Natural Language Processing in Prolog/Pop11/Lisp

Natural Language Processing in Prolog/Pop11/Lisp
Website (dead link)
Author Gerald Gazdar, Chris Mellish
Format HTML
Pages -

Natural Language Processing in Prolog/Pop11/Lisp is specifically intended to teach natural language processing and computational linguistics: it does not attempt to teach programming or computer science to linguists or to provide more than an implicit introduction to linguistics for computer scientists.

The main focus of this book, as of the field to which it provides an introduction, is on the processing of the orthographic forms of natural language utterances and text.

  • Introduction - looks briefly at the origins of natural language processing, the emergence of structural notions in NLP, the ways in which researchers have attempted to represent meaning, the increasing appreciation of the role of real-world knowledge, and the early indications that NLP is moving from academic research into commercial technology. The chapter concludes by considering the appropriateness of using Prolog for NLP
  • Finite-state techniques - covers finite state techniques for NLP, beginning with finite state transition networks and their implementation in Prolog, more interesting and useful finite state transducers, and a brief look at the limitations of finite state machines
  • Recursive and augmented transition networks
  • Grammars - considers the declarative representation of grammars, words, rules and structures, and introduces the PATR grammar formalism
  • Parsing, search and ambiguity - looks at parsing, search and ambiguity, considers a simple parsing problem is minute detail, distinguishes bottom-up from top-down parsing, and breadth first from depth first search strategies, touches on the possibility of storing intermediate results, investigates the major sources of ambiguity, and explains determinism and lookahead
  • Well-formed substring tables and charts - pursues the possibility of storing intermediate results in great detail by introducing well-formed substring tables & charts. The fundamental rule of active chart parsing is discussed, as are such topics as chart initialization, rule invocation, search strategy, housekeeping, efficiency, and alternative rule invocation strategie
  • Features and the lexicon - develops the feature-theoretic view of syntax and then goes on to look at the nature of the lexicon presupposed by feature-based language models. Feature structures are treated as graphs and implemented in Prolog, subsumption and unification are defined, and a Prolog realization of PATR is presented. Issues that arise in chart parsing with feature-based grammars, such as copying, duplication checking, indexing, and the conflation of similar edges, are discussed. The rest of the chapter is devoted to the representation of lexical knowledge and the implemention of a lexicon in Prolog
  • Semantics - moves from syntax to semantics via the notion of compositionality, and a look at meaning as reference
  • Question answering and inference - includes such topics as the evaluation of DBQ formulae, standard logical inference, the implementation in Prolog of backwards and forwards inference, the pathological nature of logical inference, primitives and canonical forms, inheritance and defaults. A simple semantic network in Prolog is also covered
  • Pragmatics - considers the semantic and pragmatic roles of noun phrases. It presents the contrast given and new information, the notion of understanding by prediction, and the use of discourse structure. It ends by presenting language generation as a goal-oriented process and language understanding as plan recognition

This book is aimed at computer scientists and linguists at undergraduate, postgraduate, or faculty level, who have taken, or are concurrently taking, a programming course in Prolog.

8. Prolog Techniques

Prolog Techniques
Author Attila Csenki
Format PDF
Pages 186

The work comprises two parts: Prolog Techniques and Applications of Prolog. This volume is in four chapters and illustrates special Prolog programming techniques. The second volume concentrates on applications of Prolog, mainly from Artificial Intelligence.

This book provides a good compilation of programming projects, case studies and exercises of various complexity.

Chapters cover:

  • Accumulator Technique - for defining predicates by recursion. In the absence of a language construct for writing loops such as while and for loops, repetition in Prolog is accomplished by recursion
  • Difference Lists - a useful technique that allows predicates involving certain list operations to be implemented very efficiently
  • Program Manipulations - demonstrates how this feature of Prolog can be made use of in practice. The chapter discusses the built-in Prolog predicates for basic database maintenance work, a tool for automated program unfolding, and how Prolog can be used to define a Prolog program some features of which are specified at runtime
  • Exploratory Code Development - a software development style that is interactive, incremental, exploratory and allows Prolog code to be arrived in an easy way

This PDF book contains advertising.

9. Artifical Intelligence through Prolog

Artifical Intelligence through Prolog
Author Neil C. Rowe
Format HTML
Pages 451

Artificial intelligence is a tool for complex problems, and its program examples can easily be extremely complicated. Neil Rose has written a book designed to make it easier to learn. The author explains difficult concepts in a simple, concrete way.

This book is intended for all first courses in artificial intelligence at the undergraduate or graduate level, requiring background of only a few computer science courses.

Chapters cover:

  • Representing facts
  • Variables and queries
  • Definitions and inferences
  • Arithmetic and lists in Prolog
  • Control structures for rule-based systems
  • Implementation of rule-based systems
  • Representing uncertainty in rule-based systems
  • Search
  • Implementing search
  • Abstraction in search
  • Abstraction of facts
  • Problems with many constraints
  • A more general logic programming
  • Testing and debugging of artificial intelligence programs

The book integrates practical programming examples, in the style of programming language and data structures books. Solving problems is the best way to learn artificial intelligence. There are lots of exercises in this book, at the ends of chapters.

Back to the Beginning: 9 of the Best Free Prolog Books - Part 1

This article is divided into three parts:

Part 1, Part 2, Part 3

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Last Updated Sunday, June 07 2015 @ 01:33 PM EDT

We have written a range of guides highlighting excellent free books for popular programming languages. Check out the following guides: C, C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, CoffeeScript, HTML, Python, Ruby, Perl, Haskell, PHP, Lisp, R, Prolog, Scala, Scheme, Forth, SQL, Node.js (new), Fortran (new), Erlang (new), Pascal (new), and Ada (new).

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